Research Publications

2020

Tollon, F. . (2020). The artifcial view: toward a non‑anthropocentric account of moral patiency. Ethics and Information Technology, 22(4). http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-020-09540-4

In this paper I provide an exposition and critique of the Organic View of Ethical Status, as outlined by Torrance (2008). A key presupposition of this view is that only moral patients can be moral agents. It is claimed that because artificial agents lack sentience, they cannot be proper subjects of moral concern (i.e. moral patients). This account of moral standing in principle excludes machines from participating in our moral universe. I will argue that the Organic View operationalises anthropocentric intuitions regarding sentience ascription, and by extension how we identify moral patients. The main difference between the argument I provide here and traditional arguments surrounding moral attributability is that I do not necessarily defend the view that internal states ground our ascriptions of moral patiency. This is in contrast to views such as those defended by Singer (1975, 2011) and Torrance (2008), where concepts such as sentience play starring roles. I will raise both conceptual and epistemic issues with regards to this sense of sentience. While this does not preclude the usage of sentience outright, it suggests that we should be more careful in our usage of internal mental states to ground our moral ascriptions. Following from this I suggest other avenues for further exploration into machine moral patiency which may not have the same shortcomings as the Organic View.

@article{387,
  author = {Fabio Tollon},
  title = {The artifcial view: toward a non‑anthropocentric account of moral patiency},
  abstract = {In this paper I provide an exposition and critique of the Organic View of Ethical Status, as outlined by Torrance (2008). A key presupposition of this view is that only moral patients can be moral agents. It is claimed that because artificial agents lack sentience, they cannot be proper subjects of moral concern (i.e. moral patients). This account of moral standing in principle excludes machines from participating in our moral universe. I will argue that the Organic View operationalises anthropocentric intuitions regarding sentience ascription, and by extension how we identify moral patients. The main difference between the argument I provide here and traditional arguments surrounding moral attributability is that I do not necessarily defend the view that internal states ground our ascriptions of moral patiency. This is in contrast to views such as those defended by Singer (1975, 2011) and Torrance (2008), where concepts such as sentience play starring roles. I will raise both conceptual and epistemic issues with regards to this sense of sentience. While this does not preclude the usage of sentience outright, it suggests that we should be more careful in our usage of internal mental states to ground our moral ascriptions. Following from this I suggest other avenues for further exploration into machine moral patiency which may not have the same shortcomings as the Organic View.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Ethics and Information Technology},
  volume = {22},
  issue = {4},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10676-020-09540-4},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-020-09540-4},
}
Friedman, C. . (2020). Human-Robot Moral Relations: Human Interactants as Moral Patients of Their Own Agential Moral Actions Towards Robots. Communications in Computer and Information Science , 1342. http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_1

This paper contributes to the debate in the ethics of social robots on how or whether to treat social robots morally by way of considering a novel perspective on the moral relations between human interactants and social robots. This perspective is significant as it allows us to circumnavigate debates about the (im)possibility of robot consciousness and moral patiency (debates which often slow down discussion on the ethics of HRI), thus allowing us to address actual and urgent current ethical issues in relation to human-robot interaction. The paper considers the different ways in which human interactants may be moral patients in the context of interaction with social robots: robots as conduits of human moral action towards human moral patients; humans as moral patients to the actions of robots; and human interactants as moral patients of their own agential moral actions towards social robots. This third perspective is the focal point of the paper. The argument is that due to perceived robot consciousness, and the possibility that the immoral treatment of social robots may morally harm human interactants, there is a unique moral relation between humans and social robots wherein human interactants are both the moral agents of their actions towards robots, as well as the actual moral patients of those agential moral actions towards robots. Robots, however, are no more than perceived moral patients. This discussion further adds to debates in the context of robot moral status, and the consideration of the moral treatment of robots in the context of human-robot interaction.

@article{385,
  author = {Cindy Friedman},
  title = {Human-Robot Moral Relations: Human Interactants as Moral Patients of Their Own Agential Moral Actions Towards Robots},
  abstract = {This paper contributes to the debate in the ethics of social robots on how or whether to treat social robots morally by way of considering a novel perspective on the moral relations between human interactants and social robots. This perspective is significant as it allows us to circumnavigate debates about the (im)possibility of robot consciousness and moral patiency (debates which often slow down discussion on the ethics of HRI), thus allowing us to address actual and urgent current ethical issues in relation to human-robot interaction. The paper considers the different ways in which human interactants may be moral patients in the context of interaction with social robots: robots as conduits of human moral action towards human moral patients; humans as moral patients to the actions of robots; and human interactants as moral patients of their own agential moral actions towards social robots. This third perspective is the focal point of the paper. The argument is that due to perceived robot consciousness, and the possibility that the immoral treatment of social robots may morally harm human interactants, there is a unique moral relation between humans and social robots wherein human interactants are both the moral agents of their actions towards robots, as well as the actual moral patients of those agential moral actions towards robots. Robots, however, are no more than perceived moral patients. This discussion further adds to debates in the context of robot moral status, and the consideration of the moral treatment of robots in the context of human-robot interaction.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
  volume = {1342},
  pages = {3-20},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-030-66151-9},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_1},
}
Ruttkamp-Bloem, E. . (2020). The Quest for Actionable AI Ethics. Communications in Computer and Information Science , 1342. http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_3

In the face of the fact that AI ethics guidelines currently, on the whole, seem to have no significant impact on AI practices, the quest of AI ethics to ensure trustworthy AI is in danger of becoming nothing more than a nice ideal. Serious work is to be done to ensure AI ethics guidelines are actionable. To this end, in this paper, I argue that AI ethics should be approached 1) in a multi-disciplinary manner focused on concrete research in the discipline of the ethics of AI and 2) as a dynamic system on the basis of virtue ethics in order to work towards enabling all AI actors to take responsibility for their own actions and to hold others accountable for theirs. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of understanding AI ethics as playing out on a continuum of interconnected interests across academia, civil society, public policy-making and the private sector, and a novel notion of ‘AI ethics capital’ is put on the table as outcome of actionable AI ethics and essential ingredient for sustainable trustworthy AI.

@article{384,
  author = {Emma Ruttkamp-Bloem},
  title = {The Quest for Actionable AI Ethics},
  abstract = {In the face of the fact that AI ethics guidelines currently, on the whole, seem to have no significant impact on AI practices, the quest of AI ethics to ensure trustworthy AI is in danger of becoming nothing more than a nice ideal. Serious work is to be done to ensure AI ethics guidelines are actionable. To this end, in this paper, I argue that AI ethics should be approached 1) in a multi-disciplinary manner focused on concrete research in the discipline of the ethics of AI and 2) as a dynamic system on the basis of virtue ethics in order to work towards enabling all AI actors to take responsibility for their own actions and to hold others accountable for theirs. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of understanding AI ethics as playing out on a continuum of interconnected interests across academia, civil society, public policy-making and the private sector, and a novel notion of ‘AI ethics capital’ is put on the table as outcome of actionable AI ethics and essential ingredient for sustainable trustworthy AI.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
  volume = {1342},
  pages = {34-52},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-030-66151-9},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66151-9_3},
}
Paterson-Jones, G. ., Casini, G. ., & Meyer, T. . (2020). BKLM - An expressive logic for defeasible reasoning. 18th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning. (Original work published 2020)

Propositional KLM-style defeasible reasoning involves a core propositional logic capable of expressing defeasible (or conditional) implications. The semantics for this logic is based on Kripke-like structures known as ranked interpretations. KLM-style defeasible entailment is referred to as rational whenever the defeasible entailment relation under consideration generates a set of defeasible implications all satisfying a set of rationality postulates known as the KLM postulates. In a recent paper Booth et al. proposed PTL, a logic that is more expressive than the core KLM logic. They proved an impossibility result, showing that defeasible entailment for PTL fails to satisfy a set of rationality postulates similar in spirit to the KLM postulates. Their interpretation of the impossibility result is that defeasible entailment for PTL need not be unique. In this paper we continue the line of research in which the expressivity of the core KLM logic is extended. We present the logic Boolean KLM (BKLM) in which we allow for disjunctions, conjunctions, and negations, but not nesting, of defeasible implications. Our contribution is twofold. Firstly, we show (perhaps surprisingly) that BKLM is more expressive than PTL. Our proof is based on the fact that BKLM can characterise all single ranked interpretations, whereas PTL cannot. Secondly, given that the PTL impossibility result also applies to BKLM, we adapt the different forms of PTL entailment proposed by Booth et al. to apply to BKLM.

@misc{383,
  author = {Guy Paterson-Jones and Giovanni Casini and Tommie Meyer},
  title = {BKLM - An expressive logic for defeasible reasoning},
  abstract = {Propositional KLM-style defeasible reasoning involves a core propositional logic capable of expressing defeasible (or conditional) implications. The semantics for this logic is based on Kripke-like structures known as ranked interpretations. KLM-style defeasible entailment is referred to as rational whenever the defeasible entailment relation under consideration generates a set of defeasible implications all satisfying a set of rationality postulates known as the KLM postulates. In a recent paper Booth et al. proposed PTL, a logic that is more expressive than the core KLM logic. They proved an impossibility result, showing that defeasible entailment for PTL fails to satisfy a set of rationality postulates similar in spirit to the KLM postulates. Their interpretation of the impossibility result is that defeasible entailment for PTL need not be unique.
In this paper we continue the line of research in which the expressivity of the core KLM logic is extended. We present the logic Boolean KLM (BKLM) in which we allow for disjunctions, conjunctions, and negations, but not nesting, of defeasible implications. Our contribution is twofold. Firstly, we show (perhaps surprisingly) that BKLM is more expressive than PTL. Our proof is based on the fact that BKLM can characterise all single ranked interpretations, whereas PTL cannot. Secondly, given that the PTL impossibility result also applies to BKLM, we adapt the different forms of PTL entailment proposed by Booth et al. to apply to BKLM.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {18th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning},
  month = {12/09/2020-24/09/2020},
}
Casini, G. ., Meyer, T. ., & Varzinczak, I. . (2020). Rational Defeasible Belief Change. In 17th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 2020). Virtual: IJCAI. http://doi.org/10.24963/kr.2020/22 (Original work published 2020)

We present a formal framework for modelling belief change within a non-monotonic reasoning system. Belief change and non-monotonic reasoning are two areas that are formally closely related, with recent attention being paid towards the analysis of belief change within a non-monotonic environment. In this paper we consider the classical AGM belief change operators, contraction and revision, applied to a defeasible setting in the style of Kraus, Lehmann, and Magidor. The investigation leads us to the formal characterisation of a number of classes of defeasible belief change operators. For the most interesting classes we need to consider the problem of iterated belief change, generalising the classical work of Darwiche and Pearl in the process. Our work involves belief change operators aimed at ensuring logical consistency, as well as the characterisation of analogous operators aimed at obtaining coherence—an important notion within the field of logic-based ontologies

@{382,
  author = {Giovanni Casini and Tommie Meyer and Ivan Varzinczak},
  title = {Rational Defeasible Belief Change},
  abstract = {We present a formal framework for modelling belief change within a non-monotonic reasoning system. Belief change and non-monotonic reasoning are two areas that are formally closely related, with recent attention being paid towards the analysis of belief change within a non-monotonic environment. In this paper we consider the classical AGM belief change operators, contraction and revision, applied to a defeasible setting in the style of Kraus, Lehmann, and Magidor. The investigation leads us to the formal characterisation of a number of classes of defeasible belief change operators. For the most interesting classes we need to consider the problem of iterated belief change, generalising the classical work of Darwiche and Pearl in the process. Our work involves belief change operators aimed at ensuring logical consistency, as well as the characterisation of analogous operators aimed at obtaining coherence—an important notion within the field of logic-based ontologies},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {17th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 2020)},
  pages = {213-222},
  month = {12/09/2020},
  publisher = {IJCAI},
  address = {Virtual},
  url = {https://library.confdna.com/kr/2020/},
  doi = {10.24963/kr.2020/22},
}
Moodley, D. ., & Meyer, T. . (2020). Artificial Intelligence – Where it is heading and what we should do about it . Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42354-020-0269-5

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already shaping our everyday lives. While there is enormous potential for harnessing AI to solve complex industrial and social problems and to create new and innovative products and solutions, many organisations are still grappling to understand the relevance and future impact of AI on their activities and what they should be doing about it.

@misc{381,
  author = {Deshen Moodley and Tommie Meyer},
  title = {Artificial Intelligence – Where it is heading and what we should do about it},
  abstract = {Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already shaping our everyday lives. While there is enormous potential for harnessing AI to solve complex industrial and social problems and to create new and innovative products and solutions, many organisations are still grappling to understand the relevance and future impact of AI on their activities and what they should be doing about it.},
  year = {2020},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42354-020-0269-5},
}
Toussaint, W. ., & Moodley, D. . (2020). Identifying optimal clustering structures for residential energy consumption patterns using competency questions. In SAICSIT ’20: Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists 2020. Virtual: ACM Digital Library. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/doi/proceedings/10.1145/3410886 (Original work published 2020)

Traditional cluster analysis metrics rank clustering structures in terms of compactness and distinctness of clusters. However, in real world applications this is usually insufficient for selecting the optimal clustering structure. Domain experts and visual analysis are often relied on during evaluation, which results in a selection process that tends to be adhoc, subjective and difficult to reproduce. This work proposes the use of competency questions and a cluster scoring matrix to formalise expert knowledge and application requirements for qualitative evaluation of clustering structures. We show how a qualitative ranking of clustering structures can be integrated with traditional metrics to guide cluster evaluation and selection for generating representative energy consumption profiles that characterise residential electricity demand in South Africa. The approach is shown to be highly effective for identifying usable and expressive consumption profiles within this specific application context, and certainly has wider potential for efficient, transparent and repeatable cluster selection in real-world applications.

@{380,
  author = {Wiebke Toussaint and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {Identifying optimal clustering structures for residential energy consumption patterns using competency questions},
  abstract = {Traditional cluster analysis metrics rank clustering structures in terms of compactness and distinctness of clusters. However, in real world applications this is usually insufficient for selecting the optimal clustering structure. Domain experts and visual analysis are often relied on during evaluation, which results in a selection process that tends to be adhoc, subjective and difficult to reproduce. This work proposes the use of competency questions and a cluster scoring matrix to formalise expert knowledge and application requirements for qualitative evaluation of clustering structures. We show how a qualitative ranking of clustering structures can be integrated with traditional metrics to guide cluster evaluation and selection for generating representative energy consumption profiles that characterise residential electricity demand in South Africa. The approach is shown to be highly effective for identifying usable and expressive consumption profiles within this specific application context, and certainly has wider potential for efficient, transparent and repeatable cluster selection in real-world applications.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {SAICSIT '20: Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists 2020},
  pages = {66-73},
  month = {14/09/2020},
  publisher = {ACM Digital Library},
  address = {Virtual},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-8847-4},
  url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/proceedings/10.1145/3410886},
}
Clark, A. ., Pillay, A. ., & Moodley, D. . (2020). A system for pose analysis and selection in virtual reality environments. In SAICSIT ’20: Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists 2020. Virtual: ACM Digital Library. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/doi/proceedings/10.1145/3410886 (Original work published 2020)

Depth cameras provide a natural and intuitive user interaction mechanism in virtual reality environments by using hand gestures as the primary user input. However, building robust VR systems that use depth cameras are challenging. Gesture recognition accuracy is affected by occlusion, variation in hand orientation and misclassification of similar hand gestures. This research explores the limits of the Leap Motion depth camera for static hand pose recognition in virtual reality applications. We propose a system for analysing static hand poses and for systematically identifying a pose set that can achieve a near-perfect recognition accuracy. The system consists of a hand pose taxonomy, a pose notation, a machine learning classifier and an algorithm to identify a reliable pose set that can achieve near perfect accuracy levels. We used this system to construct a benchmark hand pose data set containing 2550 static hand pose instances, and show how the algorithm can be used to systematically derive a set of poses that can produce an accuracy of 99% using a Support Vector Machine classifier.

@{379,
  author = {Andrew Clark and Anban Pillay and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {A system for pose analysis and selection in virtual reality environments},
  abstract = {Depth cameras provide a natural and intuitive user interaction mechanism in virtual reality environments by using hand gestures as the primary user input. However, building robust VR systems that use depth cameras are challenging. Gesture recognition accuracy is affected by occlusion, variation in hand orientation and misclassification of similar hand gestures. This research explores the limits of the Leap Motion depth camera for static hand pose recognition in virtual reality applications. We propose a system for analysing static hand poses and for systematically identifying a pose set that can achieve a near-perfect recognition accuracy. The system consists of a hand pose taxonomy, a pose notation, a machine learning classifier and an algorithm to identify a reliable pose set that can achieve near perfect accuracy levels. We used this system to construct a benchmark hand pose data set containing 2550 static hand pose instances, and show how the algorithm can be used to systematically derive a set of poses that can produce an accuracy of 99% using a Support Vector Machine classifier.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {SAICSIT '20: Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists 2020},
  pages = {210-216},
  month = {14/09/2020},
  publisher = {ACM Digital Library},
  address = {Virtual},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-8847-4},
  url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/proceedings/10.1145/3410886},
}
Roodt, J. ., Leenen, L. ., & van Vuuren, J. . (2020). Modelling Of The Complex Societal Problem Of Establishing A National Energy Sufficiency Competence . In 23rd International Conference on Information Fusion.

Complex societal problems require a multi-disciplinary and multi-method approach to develop models that can support the development of solutions. General morphological analysis is a qualitative method to extract information from experts through facilitation and the use of customized software. Ontologies provide semantic representation of knowledge bases together with automated reasoning capabilities. These two approaches, combined with the use of concept maps, provide an integrated approach which can be used to understand complex and ill-structured problem domains and to aid in business modelling, strategy and scenario development and finally, decision-making. The resulting models are subjective constructs reflecting the knowledge and understanding of the analysts. Subsequent synthesis of new understanding and decisions rely on the robust validation and verification of the underlying logic and assumptions of the conceptual models. Morphological Analysis and ontological constructs are applied in terms of an integrated Morphological Ontology Design Engineering methodology (MODE), which is based on Design Science. The paper is developed around the opportunity of scoping the applied research competence required to support a nation’s progress toward energy sufficiency. This paper presents a complex fused model for national energy sufficiency in New Zealand. The approach can be used to address other ill- structured complex societal problems.

@{375,
  author = {JH Roodt and Louise Leenen and Jansen van Vuuren},
  title = {Modelling Of The Complex Societal Problem Of  Establishing A National Energy Sufficiency Competence},
  abstract = {Complex societal problems require a multi-disciplinary and multi-method approach to develop models that can support the development of solutions. General morphological analysis is a qualitative method to extract information from experts through facilitation and the use of customized software. Ontologies provide semantic representation of knowledge bases together with automated reasoning capabilities. These two approaches, combined with the use of concept maps, provide an integrated approach which can be used to understand complex and ill-structured problem domains and to aid in business modelling, strategy and scenario development and finally, decision-making. The resulting models are subjective constructs reflecting the knowledge and understanding of the analysts. Subsequent synthesis of new understanding and decisions rely on the robust validation and verification of the underlying logic and assumptions of the conceptual models. 
Morphological Analysis and ontological constructs are applied in terms of an integrated Morphological Ontology Design Engineering methodology (MODE), which is based on Design Science. The paper is developed around the opportunity of scoping the applied research competence required to support a nation’s progress toward energy sufficiency. This paper presents a complex fused model for national energy sufficiency in New Zealand. The approach can be used to address other ill- structured complex societal problems.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {23rd International Conference on Information Fusion},
  pages = {880 - 887},
  month = {06/07-09/07},
  isbn = {978-0-578-64709-8},
}
Jafta, Y. ., Leenen, L. ., & Chan, P. . (2020). An Ontology for the South African Protection of Personal Information Act. In The 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security. UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited.

The protection and management of data, and especially personal information, is becoming an issue of critical importance in both the business environment and in general society. Various institutions have justifiable reasons to gather the personal information of individuals but they are required to comply with any legislation involving the processing of such data. Organisations thus face legal and other repercussions should personal information be breached or treated negligently. Most countries have adopted privacy and data protection laws or are in the process of enacting such laws. In South Africa, the Protection of Privacy Information Act (POPIA) was formally adopted in 2013 but it is yet to be implemented. When the implementation of the Act is announced, role players (responsible parties and data subjects) affected by POPIA will have a grace period of a year to become compliant and/or understand how the Act will affect them. One example of a mandate that follows from POPIA is data breach notification. This paper presents the development of a prototype ontology on POPIA to promote transparency and education of affected data subjects and organisations including government departments. The ontology provides a semantic representation of a knowledge base for the regulations in the POPIA and how it affects these role players. The POPIA is closely aligned with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the POPIA ontology is inspired by similar ontologies developed for the GDPR.

@{374,
  author = {Y Jafta and Louise Leenen and P Chan},
  title = {An Ontology for the South African Protection of Personal Information Act},
  abstract = {The protection and management of data, and especially personal information, is becoming an issue of critical importance in both the business environment and in general society. Various institutions have justifiable reasons to gather the personal information of individuals but they are required to comply with any legislation involving the processing of such data. Organisations thus face legal and other repercussions should personal information be breached or treated negligently. Most countries have adopted privacy and data protection laws or are in the process of enacting such laws. In South Africa, the Protection of Privacy Information Act (POPIA) was formally adopted in 2013 but it is yet to be implemented. When the implementation of the Act is announced, role players (responsible parties and data subjects) affected by POPIA will have a grace period of a year to become compliant and/or understand how the Act will affect them. One example of a mandate that follows from POPIA is data breach notification. This paper presents the development of a prototype ontology on POPIA to promote transparency and education of affected data subjects and organisations including government departments. The ontology provides a semantic representation of a knowledge base for the regulations in the POPIA and how it affects these role players. The POPIA is closely aligned with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the POPIA ontology is inspired by similar ontologies developed for the GDPR.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {The 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security},
  pages = {158 - 176},
  month = {25/06 - 26/06},
  publisher = {Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited},
  address = {UK},
  isbn = {978-1-912764-61-7},
}
van Vuuren, J. ., & Leenen, L. . (2020). Proving It Is the Data That Is Biased, Not the Algorithm Through a Recent South African Online Case Study. Journal of Information Warfare, 19(3).

In the recent past, some Internet users questioned the reliability of online news, but not necessarily the role of search engines in programming public discourse. In 2018, South African Twitter users accused Google of peddling misinformation when Google Image searches for the phrase “squatter camps in South Africa” displayed images of white squatter camps. Many ana-lysts blamed Google’s algorithm for displaying bias. In this article, the authors use this example in comparing the findings of six different search engines to counter this argument. Search engines that are diverse in their scope and origin are used to prove that is it not the algorithm, but rather the data that is biased.

@article{373,
  author = {Jansen van Vuuren and Louise Leenen},
  title = {Proving It Is the Data That Is Biased, Not the Algorithm Through a Recent South African Online Case Study},
  abstract = {In the recent past, some Internet users questioned the reliability of online news, but not necessarily the role of search engines in programming public discourse. In 2018, South African Twitter users accused Google of peddling misinformation when Google Image searches for the phrase “squatter camps in South Africa” displayed images of white squatter camps. Many ana-lysts blamed Google’s algorithm for displaying bias. In this article, the authors use this example in comparing the findings of six different search engines to counter this argument. Search engines that are diverse in their scope and origin are used to prove that is it not the algorithm, but rather the data that is biased.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {118-129},
  issue = {3},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {1445-3312},
}
van Vuuren, J. ., Leenen, L. ., & Pieterse, P. . (2020). Development and Implementation of Cybercrime Strategies in Africa with Specific Reference to South Africa. Journal of Information Warfare, 19(3).

Cybercrime is increasing at a rate few individuals would have predicted. IBM estimated in 2016 that, in 2019, the cost of cybercrime would reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. The growth of the Internet and the rapid development of technology provide enormous economic and social benefits but at the same time provide platforms for cybercriminals to exploit. Organised crime is using more sophisticated techniques, which require highly skilled and specialised law enforcement responses. One example is the use of cryptocurrencies, which makes it easier for cybercriminals to hide their proceeds. Regulatory measures often lag behind. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the growing threat of cybercrime with a specific focus on high levels of cybercrime in Africa. The focus then turns to the development of national cybercrime strategies and implementation. Results from literature and the authors’ analyses of two cyber indices to measure the capabilities and capacities of countries are combined to present a framework for the development of a cybercrime strategy, and in particular, a strategy customised for African countries.

@article{372,
  author = {Jansen van Vuuren and Louise Leenen and P Pieterse},
  title = {Development and Implementation of Cybercrime Strategies in Africa with Specific Reference to South Africa},
  abstract = {Cybercrime is increasing at a rate few individuals would have predicted. IBM estimated in 2016 that, in 2019, the cost of cybercrime would reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. The growth of the Internet and the rapid development of technology provide enormous economic and social benefits but at the same time provide platforms for cybercriminals to exploit. Organised crime is using more sophisticated techniques, which require highly skilled and specialised law enforcement responses. One example is the use of cryptocurrencies, which makes it easier for cybercriminals to hide their proceeds. Regulatory measures often lag behind.
In this paper, the authors give an overview of the growing threat of cybercrime with a specific focus on high levels of cybercrime in Africa. The focus then turns to the development of national cybercrime strategies and implementation. Results from literature and the authors’ analyses of two cyber indices to measure the capabilities and capacities of countries are combined to present a framework for the development of a cybercrime strategy, and in particular, a strategy customised for African countries.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {83 - 101},
  issue = {3},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {1445-3312},
}
Ramluckan, T. ., van Niekerk, B. ., & Leenen, L. . (2020). Cybersecurity and Information Warfare Research in South Africa: Challenges and Proposed Solutions. Journal of Information Warfare, 19(1).

Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field; however, there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects, such as, for example, human factors, legal, and governance issues. The broad scope, combined with other historical or bureaucratic factors, can provide challenges to researchers and students where appropriate methodologies do not necessarily conform to traditional disciplinary norms; prejudice against research approaches can occur as a result of ‘old school thought’. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose solutions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and Information Warfare (IW) in South Africa.

@article{371,
  author = {T Ramluckan and B van Niekerk and Louise Leenen},
  title = {Cybersecurity and Information Warfare Research in South Africa: Challenges and Proposed Solutions},
  abstract = {Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field; however, there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects, such as, for example, human factors, legal, and governance issues. The broad scope, combined with other historical or bureaucratic factors, can provide challenges to researchers and students where appropriate methodologies do not necessarily conform to traditional disciplinary norms; prejudice against research approaches can occur as a result of ‘old school thought’. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose solutions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and Information Warfare (IW) in South Africa.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Journal of Information Warfare},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {80-95},
  issue = {1},
  publisher = {Peregrine Technical Solutions},
  address = {Virginia, USA},
  isbn = {ISSN 1445-3312},
}
Davel, M. H., Theunissen, M. W., Pretorius, A. P., & Barnard, E. . (2020). DNNs as layers of cooperating classifiers. In The Thirty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-20). New York. (Original work published 2020)

A robust theoretical framework that can describe and predict the generalization ability of deep neural networks (DNNs) in general circumstances remains elusive. Classical attempts have produced complexity metrics that rely heavily on global measures of compactness and capacity with little investigation into the effects of sub-component collaboration. We demonstrate intriguing regularities in the activation patterns of the hidden nodes within fully-connected feedforward networks. By tracing the origin of these patterns, we show how such networks can be viewed as the combination of two information processing systems: one continuous and one discrete. We describe how these two systems arise naturally from the gradient-based optimization process, and demonstrate the classification ability of the two systems, individually and in collaboration. This perspective on DNN classification offers a novel way to think about generalization, in which different subsets of the training data are used to train distinct classifiers; those classifiers are then combined to perform the classification task, and their consistency is crucial for accurate classification.

@{236,
  author = {Marelie Davel and Marthinus Theunissen and Arnold Pretorius and Etienne Barnard},
  title = {DNNs as layers of cooperating classifiers},
  abstract = {A robust theoretical framework that can describe and predict the generalization ability of deep neural networks (DNNs) in general circumstances remains elusive. Classical attempts have produced complexity metrics that rely heavily on global measures of compactness and capacity with little investigation into the effects of sub-component collaboration. We demonstrate intriguing regularities in the activation patterns of the hidden nodes within fully-connected feedforward networks. By tracing the origin of these patterns, we show how such networks can be viewed as the combination of two information processing systems: one continuous and one discrete. We describe how these two systems arise naturally from the gradient-based optimization process, and demonstrate the classification ability of the two systems, individually and in collaboration. This perspective on DNN classification offers a novel way to think about generalization, in which different subsets of the training data are used to train distinct classifiers; those classifiers are then combined to perform the classification task, and their consistency is crucial for accurate classification.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {The Thirty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-20)},
  pages = {3725 - 3732},
  month = {07/02-12/02/2020},
  address = {New York},
}
Thirion, J. W. F., Van Heerden, C. J., Giwa, O. ., & Davel, M. H. (2020). The South African directory enquiries (SADE) name corpus. Language Resources & Evaluation, 54(1). http://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-019-09448-6

We present the design and development of a South African directory enquiries corpus. It contains audio and orthographic transcriptions of a wide range of South African names produced by first-language speakers of four languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiZulu and Sesotho. Useful as a resource to understand the effect of name language and speaker language on pronunciation, this is the first corpus to also aim to identify the ‘‘intended language’’: an implicit assumption with regard to word origin made by the speaker of the name. We describe the design, collection, annotation, and verification of the corpus. This includes an analysis of the algorithms used to tag the corpus with meta information that may be beneficial to pronunciation modelling tasks.

@article{280,
  author = {Jan Thirion and Charl Van Heerden and Oluwapelumi Giwa and Marelie Davel},
  title = {The South African directory enquiries (SADE) name corpus},
  abstract = {We present the design and development of a South African directory enquiries corpus. It contains audio and orthographic transcriptions of a wide range of South African names produced by first-language speakers of four languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiZulu and Sesotho. Useful as a resource to understand the effect of name language and speaker language on pronunciation, this is the first corpus to also aim to identify the ‘‘intended language’’: an implicit assumption with regard to word origin made by the speaker of the name. We describe the design, collection, annotation, and verification of the corpus. This includes an analysis of the algorithms used to tag the corpus with meta information that may be beneficial to pronunciation modelling tasks.},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Language Resources & Evaluation},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {155-184},
  issue = {1},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cape Town, South Africa},
  doi = {10.1007/s10579-019-09448-6},
}

2019

Lotz, S. ., Beukes, J. P., & Davel, M. H. (2019). A neural network based method for input parameter selection (Poster). In Machine Learning in Heliophysics. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

No Abstract

@{368,
  author = {Stefan Lotz and Jacques Beukes and Marelie Davel},
  title = {A neural network based method for input parameter selection (Poster)},
  abstract = {No Abstract},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {Machine Learning in Heliophysics},
  address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands},
}
van Vuuren, J. J., Leenen, L. ., & Pieterse, P. . (2019). Framework for the development and implementation of a cybercrime strategy in Africa. In International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS). Stellenbosch.

With the development of ICT and the Internet there was barely any inclination that it could transform itself into a pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities. Cybercrime is increasing more rapidly than expected. IBM estimated in 2016 that by 2019 the global cost of cybercrime will reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. Organised crime is using cyber platforms in a much more sophisticated way that requires a highly skilled and specialised law enforcement response. Cryptocurrencies creates the opportunity for criminals to hide proceeds and the use of cryptocurrency mining malware is resulting in cybercriminals believing they are cashing in on unprecedented successes of these currencies. Regulatory has to be updated to effectively respond to unlawful activities relating to cybercrime. A holistic approach must be used by governments to develop a strategy and implementation plan to address the phenomenon of cybercrime for law enforcement. Currently most African countries address cybercrime in an uncoordinated and fragmented way. This paper presents a framework for African countries to develop and implement a national cybercrime strategy.

@{270,
  author = {J.C van Vuuren and Louise Leenen and P Pieterse},
  title = {Framework for the development and implementation of a cybercrime strategy in Africa},
  abstract = {With the development of ICT and the Internet there was barely any inclination that it could transform itself into a pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities. Cybercrime is increasing more rapidly than expected. IBM estimated in 2016 that by 2019 the global cost of cybercrime will reach $2 trillion, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. Organised crime is using cyber platforms in a much more sophisticated way that requires a highly skilled and specialised law enforcement response. Cryptocurrencies creates the opportunity for criminals to hide proceeds and the use of cryptocurrency mining malware is resulting in cybercriminals believing they are cashing in on unprecedented successes of these currencies. Regulatory has to be updated to effectively respond to unlawful activities relating to cybercrime. A holistic approach must be used by governments to develop a strategy and implementation plan to address the phenomenon of cybercrime for law enforcement.  Currently most African countries address cybercrime in an uncoordinated and fragmented way. This paper presents a framework for African countries to develop and implement a national cybercrime strategy.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS)},
  month = {28/02 - 1/03},
  address = {Stellenbosch},
}
Leenen, L. ., van Heerden, A. ., Ngcingwana, P. ., & Masole, L. . (2019). A Model to Select a Leadership Approach for a Diverse Team. In European Conference on Business and Management Studies (ECRM). Johannesburg . http://doi.org/doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.34190/RM.19.110

The modern day workforce is more likely to be diverse and it is imperative for managers to be aware of the influence diversity has on leadership in their organisations. An effective leadership approach should take the diversity of a work team in terms of culture, age, gender, ethnicity and other factors into account. Although there are studies on the effect of national cultures on leadership and decision-making, many modern organisations employ an international workforce. This paper presents research on a methodology to build a decision model to support the selection of an appropriate leadership approach for a diverse team based on the composition of the team. The method to build such a decision model is based on Saaty’s well-known Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty J. , 1990) for solving multi-criteria decision problems. AHP allows an optimal trade-off among the criteria based on the judgments of experts in the problem area. In this paper, AHP is extended to incorporate a diversity profile of the team into the decision problem. Although there are many studies on effective leadership styles, there is very limited research on the selection of an effective leadership style for a specific team. The focus of this research is on a methodology to construct a decision model for this problem and not on the social science of diversity and its influence on employees and leaders. An example is included to show how this model building methodology can be used in practice. The next phase of this research will be to populate and automate the model based on results from research on diversity and leadership.

@{269,
  author = {Louise Leenen and A van Heerden and Phelela Ngcingwana and L Masole},
  title = {A Model to Select a Leadership Approach for a Diverse Team},
  abstract = {The modern day workforce is more likely to be diverse and it is imperative for managers to be aware of the influence diversity has on leadership in their organisations. An effective leadership approach should take the diversity of a work team in terms of culture, age, gender, ethnicity and other factors into account. Although there are studies on the effect of national cultures on leadership and decision-making, many modern organisations employ an international workforce.  
This paper presents research on a methodology to build a decision model to support the selection of an appropriate leadership approach for a diverse team based on the composition of the team. The method to build such a decision model is based on Saaty’s well-known Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty J. , 1990) for solving multi-criteria decision problems. AHP allows an optimal trade-off among the criteria based on the judgments of experts in the problem area. In this paper, AHP is extended to incorporate a diversity profile of the team into the decision problem.  
Although there are many studies on effective leadership styles, there is very limited research on the selection of an effective leadership style for a specific team. The focus of this research is on a methodology to construct a decision model for this problem and not on the social science of diversity and its influence on employees and leaders. An example is included to show how this model building methodology can be used in practice. The next phase of this research will be to populate and automate the model based on results from research on diversity and leadership.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {European Conference on Business and Management Studies (ECRM)},
  month = {21/06 - 22/06},
  address = {Johannesburg},
  doi = {doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.34190/RM.19.110},
}
Leenen, L. ., & van Vuuren, J. J. (2019). Framework for the Cultivation of a Military Cybersecurity Culture. In International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336605506_Framework_for_the_Cultivation_of_a_Military_Cybersecurity_Culture

Most military forces recognise the importance and the challenges of cyber as an operational domain. In addition to specialised cyber units, cyber is present in every division and arms of service as a result the military face increasing risks from cyber threats. It is thus crucial to establish and maintain a capability to ensure cybersecurity. Most organisations purchase and use technical controls to counter cyber threats, but users are considered the weakest link in maintaining cybersecurity, even if they are cyber aware. The cultivation of a cybersecurity culture has been shown to be the best approach to address human behaviour in the cyber domain. The development and fostering of an organisational cybersecurity culture is receiving increasing attention. This paper gives an overview of existing frameworks and guidelines in this regard and applies these approaches to the military environment. The military environment differs markedly from a business environment in terms of the nature of their work and traditional military culture. The paper proposes a framework for a military force to cultivate and foster a cybersecurity culture within the traditional military culture. This framework has to be tested in a military environment.

@{267,
  author = {Louise Leenen and J.C van Vuuren},
  title = {Framework for the Cultivation of a Military Cybersecurity Culture},
  abstract = {Most military forces recognise the importance and the challenges of cyber as an operational domain. In addition to specialised cyber units, cyber is present in every division and arms of service as a result the military face increasing risks from cyber threats. It is thus crucial to establish and maintain a capability to ensure cybersecurity. Most organisations purchase and use technical controls to counter cyber threats, but users are considered the weakest link in maintaining cybersecurity, even if they are cyber aware.  The cultivation of a cybersecurity culture has been shown to be the best approach to address human behaviour in the cyber domain. The development and fostering of an organisational cybersecurity culture is receiving increasing attention. This paper gives an overview of existing frameworks and guidelines in this regard and applies these approaches to the military environment. The military environment differs markedly from a business environment in terms of the nature of their work and traditional military culture. The paper proposes a framework for a military force to cultivate and foster a cybersecurity culture within the traditional military culture. This framework has to be tested in a military environment.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS)},
  month = {28/02 - 1/03},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336605506_Framework_for_the_Cultivation_of_a_Military_Cybersecurity_Culture},
}
Ramluckan, T. ., van Niekerk, B. ., & Leenen, L. . (2019). Research Challenges for Cybersecurity and Cyberwarfare: A South African Perspective. In European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ECCWS). Portugal. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334327321_Research_Challenges_for_Cybersecurity_and_Cyberwarfare_A_South_African_Perspective

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (2018: 6) states that “cyber capability should now be seen as a key aspect of some states’ coercive power ... This has driven some European states to re-examine their industrial, political, social and economic vulnerabilities, influence operations and information warfare, as well as more traditional areas of military power.” Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field, however there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects. The very nature of cybersecurity and operations in cyberspace is disruptive, and this is true for many disciplines attempting to introduce cybersecurity research into their offerings. This can provide challenges to researchers and students where methodologies that do not necessarily follow disciplinary norms are prejudiced against by old-school thought. Foundational understanding of concepts may also hinder multi-disciplinary research, as specific terminology that is used in cybersecurity may be considered colloquial or have different meanings in other disciplinary settings. The experimental, observational and mathematical research methodologies often employed by computer scientists do not address the political or legal aspects of cybersecurity research. Research methods for cybersecurity generally apply and teach the limited scientific methods for creating new knowledge, validating theories, and providing some critical insights into to the cybersecurity arena. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose interventions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and cyberwarfare in South Africa. Legislature and policies, organisational structures, processes, resources, and historical and socio-economic factors will be discussed as to the influence on cybersecurity research. A review and analysis of international efforts for multidisciplinary research in higher education institutions will provide for a basis to propose a framework for South African higher education institutions to effectively implement cybersecurity research.

@{266,
  author = {Trishana Ramluckan and Brett van Niekerk and Louise Leenen},
  title = {Research Challenges for Cybersecurity and Cyberwarfare: A South African Perspective},
  abstract = {The International Institute for Strategic Studies (2018: 6) states that “cyber capability should now be seen as a key aspect of some states’ coercive power ... This has driven some European states to re-examine their industrial, political, social and economic vulnerabilities, influence operations and information warfare, as well as more traditional areas of military power.” Cybersecurity is often incorrectly assumed to be a purely technical field, however there are numerous multidisciplinary aspects. The very nature of cybersecurity and operations in cyberspace is disruptive, and this is true for many disciplines attempting to introduce cybersecurity research into their offerings. This can provide challenges to researchers and students where methodologies that do not necessarily follow disciplinary norms are prejudiced against by old-school thought. Foundational understanding of concepts may also hinder multi-disciplinary research, as specific terminology that is used in cybersecurity may be considered colloquial or have different meanings in other disciplinary settings. The experimental, observational and mathematical research methodologies often employed by computer scientists do not address the political or legal aspects of cybersecurity research. Research methods for cybersecurity generally apply and teach the limited scientific methods for creating new knowledge, validating theories, and providing some critical insights into to the cybersecurity arena. This paper aims to investigate the South African national and institutional perspectives for higher education and research, identify challenges, and propose interventions to facilitate multidisciplinary research into cybersecurity and cyberwarfare in South Africa. Legislature and policies, organisational structures, processes, resources, and historical and socio-economic factors will be discussed as to the influence on cybersecurity research. A review and analysis of international efforts for multidisciplinary research in higher education institutions will provide for a basis to propose a framework for South African higher education institutions to effectively implement cybersecurity research.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ECCWS)},
  month = {04/07 - 05/07},
  address = {Portugal},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334327321_Research_Challenges_for_Cybersecurity_and_Cyberwarfare_A_South_African_Perspective},
}
Daykin, J. ., Groult, R. ., Guesnet, Y. ., Lecroq, T. ., Lefebvre, A. ., Leonard, M. ., … Watson, B. . (2019). Efficient pattern matching in degenerate strings with the Burrows–Wheeler transform. Information Processing Letters, 147. http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipl.2019.03.003

A degenerate or indeterminate string on an alphabet SIGMA is a sequence of non-empty subsets of SIGMA . Given a degenerate string t of length n and its Burrows–Wheeler transform we present a new method for searching for a degenerate pattern of length m in t running in O ( mn ) time on a constant size alphabet SIGMA. Furthermore, it is a hybrid pattern matching technique that works on both regular and degenerate strings. A degenerate string is said to be conservative if its number of non-solid letters is upper-bounded by a fixed positive constant q; in this case we show that the search time complexity is O ( qm^2 ) for counting the number of occurrences and O ( qm^2 + occ ) for reporting the found occurrences where occ is the number of occurrences of the pattern in t. Experimental results show that our method performs well in practice.

@article{265,
  author = {J.W. Daykin and R. Groult and Y. Guesnet and T. Lecroq and A. Lefebvre and M. Leonard and L. Mouchard and E. Prieur-Gaston and Bruce Watson},
  title = {Efficient pattern matching in degenerate strings with the Burrows–Wheeler transform},
  abstract = {A degenerate or indeterminate string on an alphabet SIGMA is a sequence of non-empty subsets of SIGMA . Given a degenerate string t of length n and its Burrows–Wheeler transform we present a new method for searching for a degenerate pattern of length m in t running in O ( mn ) time on a constant size alphabet SIGMA. Furthermore, it is a hybrid pattern matching technique that works on both regular and degenerate strings. A degenerate string is said to be conservative if its number of non-solid letters is upper-bounded by a fixed positive constant q; in this case we show that the search time complexity is O ( qm^2 ) for counting
the number of occurrences and O ( qm^2 + occ ) for reporting the found occurrences where occ is the number of occurrences of the pattern in t. Experimental results show that our method performs well in practice.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {Information Processing Letters},
  volume = {147},
  pages = {82 - 87},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipl.2019.03.003},
}
Runge, T. ., Schaefer, I. ., Knuppel, A. ., Cleophas, L. ., Kourie, D. ., & Watson, B. . (2019). Tool Support for Confidentiality-by-Construction. Ada User Journal , 38(2). http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3375408.3375413

In many software applications, it is necessary to preserve confidentiality of information. Therefore, security mechanisms are needed to enforce that secret information does not leak to unauthorized users. However, most language-based techniques that enable in- formation flow control work post-hoc, deciding whether a specific program violates a confidentiality policy. In contrast, we proposed in previous work a refinement-based approach to derive programs that preserve confidentiality-by-construction. This approach follows the principles of Dijkstra’s correctness-by-construction. In this extended abstract, we present the implementation and tool support of that refinement-based approach allowing to specify the information flow policies first and to create programs in a simple while language which comply to these policies by construction. In particular, we present the idea of confidentiality-by-construction using an example and discuss the IDE C-CorC supporting this development approach.

@article{263,
  author = {T. Runge and I. Schaefer and A. Knuppel and L.G.W.A. Cleophas and D.G Kourie and Bruce Watson},
  title = {Tool Support for Confidentiality-by-Construction},
  abstract = {In many software applications, it is necessary to preserve confidentiality of information. Therefore, security mechanisms are needed to enforce that secret information does not leak to unauthorized users. However, most language-based techniques that enable in- formation flow control work post-hoc, deciding whether a specific program violates a confidentiality policy. In contrast, we proposed in previous work a refinement-based approach to derive programs that preserve confidentiality-by-construction. This approach follows the principles of Dijkstra’s correctness-by-construction. In this extended abstract, we present the implementation and tool support of that refinement-based approach allowing to specify the information flow policies first and to create programs in a simple while language which comply to these policies by construction. In particular, we present the idea of confidentiality-by-construction using an example and discuss the IDE C-CorC supporting this development approach.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {Ada User Journal},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {64 - 68},
  issue = {2},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3375408.3375413},
}
Runge, T. ., Schaefer, I. ., Cleophas, L. ., Thum, T. ., Kourie, D. ., & Watson, B. . (2019). Tool Support for Correctness-by-Construction. In European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS). Switzerland: Springer. http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16722-6 _ 2

Correctness-by-Construction (CbC) is an approach to incrementally create formally correct programs guided by pre- and postcondition specifications. A program is created using refinement rules that guarantee the resulting implementation is correct with respect to the specification. Although CbC is supposed to lead to code with a low defect rate, it is not prevalent, especially because appropriate tool support is missing. To promote CbC, we provide tool support for CbC-based program development. We present CorC, a graphical and textual IDE to create programs in a simple while-language following the CbC approach. Starting with a specification, our open source tool supports CbC developers in refining a program by a sequence of refinement steps and in verifying the correctness of these refinement steps using the theorem prover KeY. We evaluated the tool with a set of standard examples on CbC where we reveal errors in the provided specification. The evaluation shows that our tool reduces the verification time in comparison to post-hoc verification.

@{262,
  author = {T. Runge and I. Schaefer and L.G.W.A. Cleophas and T. Thum and D.G Kourie and Bruce Watson},
  title = {Tool Support for Correctness-by-Construction},
  abstract = {Correctness-by-Construction (CbC) is an approach to incrementally create formally correct programs guided by pre- and postcondition specifications. A program is created using refinement rules that guarantee the resulting implementation is correct with respect to the specification. Although CbC is supposed to lead to code with a low defect rate, it is not prevalent, especially because appropriate tool support is missing. To promote CbC, we provide tool support for CbC-based program development. We present CorC, a graphical and textual IDE to create programs in a simple while-language following the CbC approach. Starting with a specification, our open source tool supports CbC developers in refining a program by a sequence of refinement steps and in verifying the correctness of these refinement steps using the theorem prover KeY. We evaluated the tool with a set of standard examples on CbC where we reveal errors in the provided specification. The evaluation shows that our tool reduces the verification time in comparison to post-hoc verification.},
  year = {2019},
  journal = {European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS)},
  pages = {25 - 42},
  month = {06/04 - 11/04},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Switzerland},
  isbn = {78-3-030-16721-9},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-16722-6.pdf},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16722-6 _ 2},
}
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