Research Publications

2017

Booth, R. ., Casini, G. ., Meyer, T. ., & Varzinczak, I. . (2017). Extending Typicality for Description Logics. Retrieved from http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/32165/1/TforDL-Technical_report.pdf

Recent extensions of description logics for dealing with different forms of non-monotonic reasoning don’t take us beyond the case of defeasible subsumption. In this paper we enrich the DL EL⊥ with a (constrained version of) a typicality operator •, the intuition of which is to capture the most typical members of a class, providing us with the DL EL•⊥. We argue that EL•⊥ is the smallest step one can take to increase the expressivity beyond the case of defeasible subsumption for DLs, while still retaining all the rationality properties an appropriate notion of defeasible subsumption is required to satisfy, and investigate what an appropriate notion of non-monotonic entailment for EL• ⊥ should look like.

@misc{165,
  author = {Richard Booth and Giovanni Casini and Tommie Meyer and Ivan Varzinczak},
  title = {Extending Typicality for Description Logics},
  abstract = {Recent extensions of description logics for dealing with different forms of non-monotonic reasoning don’t take us beyond the case of defeasible subsumption. In this paper we enrich the DL EL⊥ with a (constrained version of) a typicality operator •, the intuition of which is to capture the most typical members of a class, providing us with the DL EL•⊥. We argue that EL•⊥ is the smallest step one can take to increase the expressivity beyond the case of defeasible subsumption for DLs, while still retaining all the rationality properties an appropriate notion of defeasible subsumption is required to satisfy, and investigate what an appropriate notion of non-monotonic entailment for EL• ⊥ should look like.},
  year = {2017},
  url = {http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/32165/1/TforDL-Technical_report.pdf},
}
Rens, G. ., & Meyer, T. . (2017). Imagining Probabilistic Belief Change as Imaging. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.01172.pdf

Imaging is a form of probabilistic belief change which could be employed for both revision and update. In this paper, we propose a new framework for probabilistic belief change based on imaging, called Expected Distance Imaging (EDI). EDI is sufficiently general to define Bayesian conditioning and other forms of imaging previously defined in the literature. We argue that, and investigate how, EDI can be used for both revision and update. EDI’s definition depends crucially on a weight function whose properties are studied and whose effect on belief change operations is analysed. Finally, four EDI instantiations are proposed, two for revision and two for update, and probabilistic rationality postulates are suggested for their analysis.

@misc{164,
  author = {Gavin Rens and Tommie Meyer},
  title = {Imagining Probabilistic Belief Change as Imaging},
  abstract = {Imaging is a form of probabilistic belief change which could be employed for both revision and update. In this paper, we propose a new framework for probabilistic belief change based on imaging, called Expected Distance Imaging (EDI). EDI is sufficiently general to define Bayesian conditioning and other forms of imaging previously defined in the literature. We argue that, and investigate how, EDI can be used for both revision and update. EDI’s definition depends crucially on a weight function whose properties are studied and whose effect on belief change operations is analysed. Finally, four EDI instantiations are proposed, two for revision and two for update, and probabilistic rationality postulates are suggested for their analysis.},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.01172.pdf},
}
Gerber, A. ., Morar, N. ., Meyer, T. ., & Eardley, C. . (2017). Ontology-based support for taxonomic functions. Ecological Informatics, 41. Retrieved from https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1574954116301959/1-s2.0-S1574954116301959-main.pdf?_tid=487687ca-01b3-11e8-89aa-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1516873196_6a2c94e428089403763ccec46613cf0f

This paper reports on an investigation into the use of ontology technologies to support taxonomic functions. Support for taxonomy is imperative given several recent discussions and publications that voiced concern over the taxonomic impediment within the broader context of the life sciences. Taxonomy is defined as the scientific classification, description and grouping of biological organisms into hierarchies based on sets of shared characteristics, and documenting the principles that enforce such classification. Under taxonomic functions we identified two broad categories: the classification functions concerned with identification and naming of organisms, and secondly classification functions concerned with categorization and revision (i.e. grouping and describing, or revisiting existing groups and descriptions). Ontology technologies within the broad field of artificial intelligence include computational ontologies that are knowledge representation mechanisms using standardized representations that are based on description logics (DLs). This logic base of computational ontologies provides for the computerized capturing and manipulation of knowledge. Furthermore, the set-theoretical basis of computational ontologies ensures particular suitability towards classification, which is considered as a core function of systematics or taxonomy. Using the specific case of Afrotropical bees, this experimental research study represents the taxonomic knowledge base as an ontology, explore the use of available reasoning algorithms to draw the necessary inferences that support taxonomic functions (identification and revision) over the ontology and implement a Web-based application (the WOC). The contributions include the ontology, a reusable and standardized computable knowledge base of the taxonomy of Afrotropical bees, as well as the WOC and the evaluation thereof by experts.

@article{163,
  author = {Aurona Gerber and Nishal Morar and Tommie Meyer and C. Eardley},
  title = {Ontology-based support for taxonomic functions},
  abstract = {This paper reports on an investigation into the use of ontology technologies to support taxonomic functions. Support for taxonomy is imperative given several recent discussions and publications that voiced concern over the taxonomic impediment within the broader context of the life sciences. Taxonomy is defined as the scientific classification, description and grouping of biological organisms into hierarchies based on sets of shared characteristics, and documenting the principles that enforce such classification. Under taxonomic functions we identified two broad categories: the classification functions concerned with identification and naming of organisms, and secondly classification functions concerned with categorization and revision (i.e. grouping and describing, or revisiting existing groups and descriptions).
Ontology technologies within the broad field of artificial intelligence include computational ontologies that are knowledge representation mechanisms using standardized representations that are based on description logics (DLs). This logic base of computational ontologies provides for the computerized capturing and manipulation of knowledge. Furthermore, the set-theoretical basis of computational ontologies ensures particular suitability towards classification, which is considered as a core function of systematics or taxonomy.
Using the specific case of Afrotropical bees, this experimental research study represents the taxonomic knowledge base as an ontology, explore the use of available reasoning algorithms to draw the necessary inferences that support taxonomic functions (identification and revision) over the ontology and implement a Web-based application (the WOC). The contributions include the ontology, a reusable and standardized computable knowledge base of the taxonomy of Afrotropical bees, as well as the WOC and the evaluation thereof by experts.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Ecological Informatics},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {11-23},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  isbn = {1574-9541},
  url = {https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1574954116301959/1-s2.0-S1574954116301959-main.pdf?_tid=487687ca-01b3-11e8-89aa-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1516873196_6a2c94e428089403763ccec46613cf0f},
}
Seebregts, C. ., Pillay, A. ., Crichton, R. ., Singh, S. ., & Moodley, D. . (2017). 14 Enterprise Architectures for Digital Health. Global Health Informatics: Principles of EHealth and MHealth to Improve Quality of Care. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.za/books?id=8p-rDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=14+Enterprise+Architectures+for+Digital+Health&source=bl&ots=i6SQzaXiPp&sig=zDLJ6lIqt3Xox3Lt5LNCuMkUoJ4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwivtK6jxPDYAhVkL8AKHXbNDY0Q6AEINDAB#v=onepage&q=14%20Enterp

• Several different paradigms and standards exist for creating digital health architectures that are mostly complementary, but sometimes contradictory. • The potential benefits of using EA approaches and tools are that they help to ensure the appropriate use of standards for interoperability and data storage and exchange, and encourage the creation of reusable software components and metadata.

@article{162,
  author = {Chris Seebregts and Anban Pillay and Ryan Crichton and S. Singh and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {14 Enterprise Architectures for Digital Health},
  abstract = {• Several different paradigms and standards exist for creating digital health architectures that 
are mostly complementary, but sometimes contradictory.
• The potential benefits of using EA 
approaches and tools are that they help to ensure the appropriate use of standards for 
interoperability and data storage and exchange, and encourage the creation of reusable 
software components and metadata.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Global Health Informatics: Principles of eHealth and mHealth to Improve Quality of Care},
  pages = {173-182},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  isbn = {978-0262533201},
  url = {https://books.google.co.za/books?id=8p-rDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=14+Enterprise+Architectures+for+Digital+Health&source=bl&ots=i6SQzaXiPp&sig=zDLJ6lIqt3Xox3Lt5LNCuMkUoJ4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwivtK6jxPDYAhVkL8AKHXbNDY0Q6AEINDAB#v=onepage&q=14%20Enterp},
}
Adeleke, J. A., Moodley, D. ., Rens, G. ., & Adewumi, A. . (2017). Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control. Sensors, 17(4). Retrieved from http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001219/01/sensors-17-00807.pdf

Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM2.5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM2.5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

@article{160,
  author = {Jude Adeleke and Deshen Moodley and Gavin Rens and A.O. Adewumi},
  title = {Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control},
  abstract = {Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM2.5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM2.5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Sensors},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {1-23},
  issue = {4},
  publisher = {MDPI},
  isbn = {1424-8220},
  url = {http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001219/01/sensors-17-00807.pdf},
}
Rens, G. ., Meyer, T. ., & Moodley, D. . (2017). A Stochastic Belief Management Architecture for Agent Control. Retrieved from http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001201/01/AGA_2017_Rens_et_al.pdf

We propose an architecture for agent control, where the agent stores its beliefs and environment models as logical sentences. Given successive observations, the agent’s current state (of beliefs) is maintained by a combination of probability, POMDP and belief change theory. Two existing logics are employed for knowledge representation and reasoning: the stochastic decision logic of Rens et al. (2015) and p-logic of Zhuanget al. (2017) (a restricted version of a logic designedby Fagin et al. (1990)). The proposed architecture assumes two streams of observations: active, which correspond to agent intentions and passive, which is received without the agent’s direct involvement. Stochastic uncertainty, and ignorance due to lack of information are both dealt with in the architecture. Planning, and learning of environment models are assumed present but are not covered in this proposal.

@misc{155,
  author = {Gavin Rens and Tommie Meyer and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {A Stochastic Belief Management Architecture for Agent Control},
  abstract = {We propose an architecture for agent control, where the agent stores its beliefs and environment models as logical sentences. Given successive observations, the agent’s current state (of beliefs) is maintained by a combination of probability, POMDP and belief change theory. Two existing logics are employed for knowledge representation and reasoning: the stochastic decision logic of Rens et al. (2015) and p-logic of Zhuanget al. (2017) (a restricted version of a logic designedby Fagin et al. (1990)). The proposed architecture assumes two streams of observations: active, which correspond to agent intentions and passive, which is received without the agent’s direct involvement. Stochastic uncertainty, and ignorance due to lack of information are both dealt with in the architecture. Planning, and learning of environment models are assumed present but are not covered in this proposal.},
  year = {2017},
  url = {http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001201/01/AGA_2017_Rens_et_al.pdf},
}
Coetzer, W. ., & Moodley, D. . (2017). A knowledge-based system for generating interaction networks from ecological data. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 112. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2017.09.005

Semantic heterogeneity hampers efforts to find, integrate, analyse and interpret ecological data. An application case-study is described, in which the objective was to automate the integration and interpretation of heterogeneous, flower-visiting ecological data. A prototype knowledgebased system is described and evaluated. The system's semantic architecture uses a combination of ontologies and a Bayesian network to represent and reason with qualitative, uncertain ecological data and knowledge. This allows the high-level context and causal knowledge of behavioural interactions between individual plants and insects, and consequent ecological interactions between plant and insect populations, to be discovered. The system automatically assembles ecological interactions into a semantically consistent interaction network (a new design of a useful, traditional domain model). We discuss the contribution of probabilistic reasoning to knowledge discovery, the limitations of knowledge discovery in the application case-study, the impact of the work and the potential to apply the system design to the study of ecological interaction networks in general.

@article{154,
  author = {Willem Coetzer and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {A knowledge-based system for generating interaction networks from ecological data},
  abstract = {Semantic heterogeneity hampers efforts to find, integrate, analyse and interpret ecological data. An application case-study is described, in which the objective was to automate the integration and interpretation of heterogeneous, flower-visiting ecological data. A prototype knowledgebased system is described and evaluated. The system's semantic architecture uses a combination of ontologies and a Bayesian network to represent and reason with qualitative, uncertain ecological data and knowledge. This allows the high-level context and causal knowledge of behavioural interactions between individual plants and insects, and consequent ecological interactions between plant and insect populations, to be discovered. The system automatically assembles ecological interactions into a semantically consistent interaction network (a new design of a useful, traditional domain model). We discuss the contribution of probabilistic reasoning to knowledge discovery, the limitations of knowledge discovery in the application case-study, the impact of the work and the potential to apply the system design to the study of ecological interaction networks in general.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Data & Knowledge Engineering},
  volume = {112},
  pages = {55-78},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  isbn = {0169-023X},
  url = {http://pubs.cs.uct.ac.za/archive/00001220/01/coetzer-et-al-DKE-2017.pdf},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2017.09.005},
}
Kroon, S. ., Heavens, A. ., Fantaye, Y. ., Sellentin, E. ., Eggers, H. ., Hosenie, Z. ., & Mootoovaloo, A. . (2017). No evidence for extensions to the standard cosmological model. Physical Review Letters, 119(2017). Retrieved from https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.101301

No Abstract

@article{152,
  author = {Steve Kroon and A. Heavens and Y. Fantaye and E. Sellentin and H. Eggers and Z. Hosenie and A. Mootoovaloo},
  title = {No evidence for extensions to the standard cosmological model},
  abstract = {No Abstract},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Physical Review Letters},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {101301-101305},
  issue = {2017},
  publisher = {American Physical Society},
  url = {https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.101301},
}
Kroon, S. ., Yoon, M. ., & Bekker, J. . (2017). New reinforcement learning algorithm for robot soccer. Orion, 33(1). Retrieved from http://orion.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/542

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a powerful technique to develop intelligent agents in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). This paper proposes a new RL algorithm called the Temporal-Difference value iteration algorithm with state-value functions and presents applications of this algorithm to the decision-making problems challenged in the RoboCup Small Size League (SSL) domain. Six scenarios were defined to develop shooting skills for an SSL soccer robot in various situations using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, namely Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) was used as a function approximator in each application. The experimental results showed that the proposed RL algorithm had effectively trained the RL agent to acquire good shooting skills. The RL agent showed good performance under specified experimental conditions.

@article{151,
  author = {Steve Kroon and M. Yoon and J. Bekker},
  title = {New reinforcement learning algorithm for robot soccer},
  abstract = {Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a powerful technique to develop intelligent agents in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). This paper proposes a new RL algorithm called the Temporal-Difference value iteration algorithm with state-value functions and presents applications of this algorithm to the decision-making problems challenged in the RoboCup Small Size League (SSL) domain. Six scenarios were defined to develop shooting skills for an SSL soccer robot in various situations using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, namely Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) was used as a function approximator in each application. The experimental results showed that the proposed RL algorithm had effectively trained the RL agent to acquire good shooting skills. The RL agent showed good performance under specified experimental conditions.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Orion},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1-20},
  issue = {1},
  publisher = {Operations Research Society of South Africa (ORSSA)},
  address = {South Africa},
  isbn = {2224-0004 (online)},
  url = {http://orion.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/542},
}
Rens, G. ., & Moodley, D. . (2017). A hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture with online stochastic planning and plan caching. Cognitive Systems Research, 43. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2016.12.002

This article presents an agent architecture for controlling an autonomous agent in stochastic, noisy environments. The architecture combines the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model with the belief-desire-intention (BDI) framework. The Hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture takes the best features from the two approaches, that is, the online generation of reward-maximizing courses of action from POMDP theory, and sophisticated multiple goal management from BDI theory. We introduce the advances made since the introduction of the basic architecture, including (i) the ability to pursue and manage multiple goals simultaneously and (ii) a plan library for storing pre-written plans and for storing recently generated plans for future reuse. A version of the architecture is implemented and is evaluated in a simulated environment. The results of the experiments show that the improved hybrid architecture outperforms the standard POMDP architecture and the previous basic hybrid architecture for both processing speed and effectiveness of the agent in reaching its goals.

@article{147,
  author = {Gavin Rens and Deshen Moodley},
  title = {A hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture with online stochastic planning and plan caching},
  abstract = {This article presents an agent architecture for controlling an autonomous agent in stochastic, noisy environments. The architecture combines the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model with the belief-desire-intention (BDI) framework. The Hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture takes the best features from the two approaches, that is, the online generation of reward-maximizing courses of action from POMDP theory, and sophisticated multiple goal management from BDI theory. We introduce the advances made since the introduction of the basic architecture, including (i) the ability to pursue and manage multiple goals simultaneously and (ii) a plan library for storing pre-written plans and for storing recently generated plans for future reuse. A version of the architecture is implemented and is evaluated in a simulated environment. The results of the experiments show that the improved hybrid architecture outperforms the standard POMDP architecture and the previous basic hybrid architecture for both processing speed and effectiveness of the agent in reaching its goals.},
  year = {2017},
  journal = {Cognitive Systems Research},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1-20},
  publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
  isbn = {1389-0417},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2016.12.002},
}

2016

Visser, D. ., & Gerber, A. . (2016). A Comparison of Project Management in System and Research Projects. In IST Africa. Durban, South Africa.

Project management is one of the oldest management processes with reference already to project management during the building of the pyramids. However, the current form of project management with the support of different tools such as electronic management systems, is relatively new. Although there are different project types the processes, principals and successes of these types might differ. In this research we are interested in the differences and similarities between system development projects and research projects. In our investigation we used a systematic review where we used a coding schema to identify themes in the two types of projects. In comparing the two types of projects, it was found that processes and principals do compare in several themes in the number of references to the themes, but the success factors for the two types of projects are significantly different.

@{458,
  author = {Dizhon Visser and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {A Comparison of Project Management in System and Research Projects},
  abstract = {Project management is one of the oldest management processes with reference already to project management during the building of the pyramids. However, the current form of project management with the support of different tools such as electronic management systems, is relatively new. Although there are different project types the processes, principals and successes of these types might differ. In this research we are interested in the differences and similarities between system development projects and research projects. In our investigation we used a systematic review where we used a coding schema to identify themes in the two types of projects. In comparing the two types of projects, it was found that processes and principals do compare in several themes in the number of references to the themes, but the success factors for the two types of projects are significantly different.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {IST Africa},
  month = {11/05-13/05},
  address = {Durban, South Africa},
  isbn = {978-1-905824-55-7},
}
Masilela, K. ., Gerber, A. ., & van der Merwe, A. . (2016). Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Micro-Entrepreneurs to Legally Screen Movies in Rural South Africa. In IST Africa. Durban, South Africa.

The entertainment industry world-wide provides lucrative business opportunities, and within South Africa, this market is still underdeveloped, especially within rural communities. Within this context, the FP7 MOSAIC 2B project aimed to empower micro-entrepreneurs by providing them with a Cinema-in-a-Backpack, which is a set of equipment allowing them to screen movies in rural areas within South Africa. However, to ensure compliance, these micro-entrepreneurs had to acquire the necessary licenses, which proved to be challenging given the regulatory environment as well as the different stakeholders involved. Using a systematic literature review as well as the MOSAIC 2B project as a case study, this paper reports on an investigation on the process and procedure necessary for a micro-entrepreneur to acquire licenses in order to screen multimedia content within rural South Africa. The paper provides an overview of the regulatory landscape as well as the nature of the film industry in South Africa. The main contribution of the investigation is a process model that could be used by a microbusiness to understand the requirements and process to follow when acquiring a legal licence for the screening of multi-media content within South Africa.

@{457,
  author = {Khumbo Masilela and Aurona Gerber and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Micro-Entrepreneurs to Legally Screen Movies in Rural South Africa},
  abstract = {The entertainment industry world-wide provides lucrative business opportunities, and within South Africa, this market is still underdeveloped, especially within rural communities. Within this context, the FP7 MOSAIC 2B project aimed to empower micro-entrepreneurs by providing them with a Cinema-in-a-Backpack, which is a set of equipment allowing them to screen movies in rural areas within South Africa. However, to ensure compliance, these micro-entrepreneurs had to acquire the necessary licenses, which proved to be challenging given the regulatory environment as well as the different stakeholders involved. Using a systematic literature review as well as the MOSAIC 2B project as a case study, this paper reports on an investigation on the process and procedure necessary for a micro-entrepreneur to acquire licenses in order to screen multimedia content within rural South Africa. The paper provides an overview of the regulatory landscape as well as the nature of the film industry in South Africa. The main contribution of the investigation is a process model that could be used by a microbusiness to understand the requirements and process to follow when acquiring a legal licence for the screening of multi-media content within South Africa.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {IST Africa},
  month = {11/05-13/05},
  address = {Durban, South Africa},
  isbn = {978-1-905824-55-7},
}
Barnard, T. ., van der Merwe, A. ., & Gerber, A. . (2016). Psychological Ownership: A Human Factor to Consider for the Success of Technology Entrepreneurial Activities. In IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). Budapest, Hungary: IEEE. http://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2016.7844964

The concept of psychological ownership where someone can identify something as their own is part of every person's life. Psychological ownership is important because someone that own something take responsibility for its wellbeing. Currently there is no mechanism to measure psychological ownership of equipment within the context of small entrepreneurial business in South Africa. In this MOSAIC-2B project case study cinema-in-a-backpack equipment was given to entrepreneurs to empower them to start their own successful businesses screening multi-media content in rural South Africa. This research aimed to identify whether or not individuals developed psychological ownership towards the cinema equipment and what the possible effects of having psychological ownership could be. This study resulted in the development of a measuring tool for psychological ownership in the context of small entrepreneurial businesses in South Africa. Psychological ownership can give valuable insight into how entrepreneurs run their businesses in South Africa and this study also established that individuals that perceive themselves as successful has a higher indication of psychological ownership.

@{456,
  author = {Toinette Barnard and Alta van der Merwe and Aurona Gerber},
  title = {Psychological Ownership: A Human Factor to Consider for the Success of Technology Entrepreneurial Activities},
  abstract = {The concept of psychological ownership where someone can identify something as their own is part of every person's life. Psychological ownership is important because someone that own something take responsibility for its wellbeing. Currently there is no mechanism to measure psychological ownership of equipment within the context of small entrepreneurial business in South Africa. In this MOSAIC-2B project case study cinema-in-a-backpack equipment was given to entrepreneurs to empower them to start their own successful businesses screening multi-media content in rural South Africa. This research aimed to identify whether or not individuals developed psychological ownership towards the cinema equipment and what the possible effects of having psychological ownership could be. This study resulted in the development of a measuring tool for psychological ownership in the context of small entrepreneurial businesses in South Africa. Psychological ownership can give valuable insight into how entrepreneurs run their businesses in South Africa and this study also established that individuals that perceive themselves as successful has a higher indication of psychological ownership.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC)},
  pages = {4646-4651},
  month = {09/10-12/10},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  address = {Budapest, Hungary},
  isbn = {978-1-5090-1898-7},
  doi = {10.1109/SMC.2016.7844964},
}
Data-driven Enterprise Architecture and the TOGAF ADM Phases. (2016). In IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). Budapest, Hungary.

This paper investigates how Data as a disruptive technology could be integrated into TOGAF. Given the recent attention of Big Data and Data Science as disruptors, this paper investigates what the impact on the enterprise could be and how Enterprise Architecture (EA) should accommodate data to enable data-driven EA. There is no model currently available that investigates how Big Data can be incorporated into data-driven EA solutions. This study specifically focuses on how the TOGAF ADM could support a data-driven enterprise. Through document analysis and a systematic literature review, a specific adaption of the TOGAF ADM is proposed that indicates the influence that Data and Big Data has on each phase within the ADM.

@{455,
  author = {},
  title = {Data-driven Enterprise Architecture and the TOGAF ADM Phases},
  abstract = {This paper investigates how Data as a disruptive technology could be integrated into TOGAF. Given the recent attention of Big Data and Data Science as disruptors, this paper investigates what the impact on the enterprise could be and how Enterprise Architecture (EA) should accommodate data to enable data-driven EA. There is no model currently available that investigates how Big Data can be incorporated into data-driven EA solutions. This study specifically focuses on how the TOGAF ADM could support a data-driven enterprise. Through document analysis and a systematic literature review, a specific adaption of the TOGAF ADM is proposed that indicates the influence that Data and Big Data has on each phase within the ADM.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC)},
  month = {09/10-12/10},
  address = {Budapest, Hungary},
  isbn = {978-1-5090-1897-0},
}
Kiptoo, C. C., Gerber, A. ., & van der Merwe, A. . (2016). The Ontological Modelling of Fruit Fly Control and Management Knowledge. In Fruit Fly Research and Development in Africa - Towards a Sustainable Management Strategy to Improve Horticulture. Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43226-7_11

Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.

@inbook{451,
  author = {Caroline Kiptoo and Aurona Gerber and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {The Ontological Modelling of Fruit Fly Control and Management Knowledge},
  abstract = {Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {Fruit Fly Research and Development in Africa - Towards a Sustainable Management Strategy to Improve Horticulture},
  pages = {235-249},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-319-43226-7},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-43226-7},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-43226-7_11},
}
Thomas, A. ., Gerber, A. ., & van der Merwe, A. . (2016). An Investigation into OWL for Concrete Syntax Specification using UML Notations. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9781. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42333-3_15

The Web Ontology Language OWL is a prominent ontology language for specifying ontologies. Although OWL ontologies are well-used for representing and reasoning about knowledge in various domains, they are sparsely studied for visual language specification. The work in this paper, therefore, explores OWL for visual language specification by specifying the concrete syntax of selected UML class diagram notations in an ontology. The selected diagram notations are specified as spatial configurations of primitive elements and qualitative base spatial relationships of Region Connection Calculus-8 (RCC-8). Furthermore, the automated reasoning features of ontology reasoners are investigated to verify the completeness and the correctness of the specification. The verification results indicate that the given specification needs to be revised to support applications to draw the selected notations. The value of such a specification in supporting a semantic diagram interpretation application is demonstrated using the automated instance classification feature of ontology reasoners.

@article{448,
  author = {Anitta Thomas and Aurona Gerber and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {An Investigation into OWL for Concrete Syntax Specification using UML Notations},
  abstract = {The Web Ontology Language OWL is a prominent ontology language for specifying ontologies. Although OWL ontologies are well-used for representing and reasoning about knowledge in various domains, they are sparsely studied for visual language specification. The work in this paper, therefore, explores OWL for visual language specification by specifying the concrete syntax of selected UML class diagram notations in an ontology. The selected diagram notations are specified as spatial configurations of primitive elements and qualitative base spatial relationships of Region Connection Calculus-8 (RCC-8). Furthermore, the automated reasoning features of ontology reasoners are investigated to verify the completeness and the correctness of the specification. The verification results indicate that the given specification needs to be revised to support applications to draw the selected notations. The value of such a specification in supporting a semantic diagram interpretation application is demonstrated using the automated instance classification feature of ontology reasoners.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {9781},
  pages = {197-211},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn = {978-3-319-42333-3},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42333-3_15},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-42333-3_15},
}
Kiptoo, C. C., Gerber, A. ., & van der Merwe, A. . (2016). Towards citizen-expert knowledge exchange for biodiversity informatics: A conceptual architecture. The African Journal of Information and Communication, 2016(18). http://doi.org/10539/21758

This article proposes a conceptual architecture for citizen-expert knowledge exchange in biodiversity management. Expert services, such as taxonomic identification, are required in many biodiversity management activities, yet these services remain inaccessible to poor communities, such as small-scale farmers. The aim of this research was to combine ontology and crowdsourcing technologies to provide taxonomic services to such communities. The study used a design science research (DSR) approach to develop the conceptual architecture. The DSR approach generates knowledge through building and evaluation of novel artefacts. The research instantiated the architecture through the development of a platform for experts and farmers to share knowledge on fruit flies. The platform is intended to support rural fruit farmers in Kenya with control and management of fruit flies. Expert knowledge about fruit flies is captured in an ontology that is integrated into the platform. The non-expert citizen participation includes harnessing crowdsourcing technologies to assist with organism identification. An evaluation of the architecture was done through an experiment of fruit fly identification using the platform. The results showed that the crowds, supported by an ontology of expert knowledge, could identify most samples to species level and in some cases to sub-family level. The conceptual architecture may guide and enable creation of citizen-expert knowledge exchange applications, which may alleviate the taxonomic impediment, as well as allow poor citizens access to expert knowledge. Such a conceptual architecture may also enable the implementation of systems that allow non-experts to participate in sharing of knowledge, thus providing opportunity for the evolution of comprehensive biodiversity knowledge systems.

@article{447,
  author = {Caroline Kiptoo and Aurona Gerber and Alta van der Merwe},
  title = {Towards citizen-expert knowledge exchange for biodiversity informatics: A conceptual architecture},
  abstract = {This article proposes a conceptual architecture for citizen-expert knowledge exchange in biodiversity management. Expert services, such as taxonomic identification, are required in many biodiversity management activities, yet these services remain inaccessible to poor communities, such as small-scale farmers. The aim of this research was to combine ontology and crowdsourcing technologies to provide taxonomic services to such communities. The study used a design science research (DSR) approach to develop the conceptual architecture. The DSR approach generates knowledge through building and evaluation of novel artefacts. The research instantiated the architecture through the development of a platform for experts and farmers to share knowledge on fruit flies. The platform is intended to support rural fruit farmers in Kenya with control and management of fruit flies. Expert knowledge about fruit flies is captured in an ontology that is integrated into the platform. The non-expert citizen participation includes harnessing crowdsourcing technologies to assist with organism identification. An evaluation of the architecture was done through an experiment of fruit fly identification using the platform. The results showed that the crowds, supported by an ontology of expert knowledge, could identify most samples to species level and in some cases to sub-family level. The conceptual architecture may guide and enable creation of citizen-expert knowledge exchange applications, which may alleviate the taxonomic impediment, as well as allow poor citizens access to expert knowledge. Such a conceptual architecture may also enable the implementation of systems that allow non-experts to participate in sharing of knowledge, thus providing opportunity for the evolution of comprehensive biodiversity knowledge systems.},
  year = {2016},
  journal = {The African Journal of Information and Communication},
  volume = {2016},
  pages = {33-54},
  issue = {18},
  url = {https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.10520/EJC-7e06bad44},
  doi = {10539/21758},
}
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